When the authors of the Preamble to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea wrote this prescient phrase in 1982, few people recognized how relevant it would become to the marine world of today. Scientists are calling increasingly for ecosystem-based management of marine areas and considerable work has already been done on developing the conceptual aspects. In fact, conceptual work has dominated ecosystem-based management and the debate has often become academic for the lack of practical evidence of what works and what does not. Hopefully, this workshop moved the theoretical work forward by shifting the focus more toward putting marine ecosystem-based management into practice. Marine spatial planning at the ecosystem level is a .rst step toward ecosystembased management.
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