Depleted fissh stocks, degradation of coastal and marine areas, as well as user contracts have prompted calls from the international community for an integrated approach to managing these areas. Nearly 700 initiatives in Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management (ICOM) are estimated to have been initiated in more than 140 countries since the mid-1960s (Sorensen, 2002). To date, however, it is probable that only half of these efforts have been fully implemented. Furthermore, there is a need to improve ICOM monitoring and evaluation practices for better results, accountability and adaptive management. Effective monitoring and evaluation is widely recognized as an indispensable tool in project and programme planning and management. If done well, a monitoring and evaluation plan and associated indicators serve both as a corrective function during the project cycle, enabling timely adjustments, and as a guide to structuring future projects more effectively.
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